The numismatic collection on display at Palazzo Massimo consists of some 5,000 coins selected from three different collections: the Kircher collection, the collection of the former King of Italy, Victor Emmanuel III, and the Gnecchi collection.
The collection of the Kircher's Museum's includes the oldest coins and some valuable votive objects, which are on display in the Hall of Coins; it was acquired soon after Rome became the capital of the Kingdom.
That of the Milanese collector and expert numismatist Francesco Gnecchi, comprising Roman and early medieval coins, was acquired by the State in 1929.
All the exhibited coins dating from the medieval trough the contemporary age (the only exception being Theodoricus 3 solidi coin, coming to the Gnecchi collection ) pertain to the collection of the King of Italy, Victor Emmanuel III, who was a passionate numismatist. It was sold by him to the Italian State in 1946, on the eve of his departure for exile in Egypt.